Diabetes is a serious chronic disease that occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin to maintain glucose homeostasis relative to the physiological demand. Insulin produced by the beta cells in pancreas is only hormone working in cellules of the human body to regulate the blood sugar. Diabetes is a metabolic disease with completely different aetiologies (the cause of disease). There are three main forms of diabetes:
- Type1diabetes mellitus (T1DM), also known as insulin dependent diabetes, is characterized by autoimmune destruction of the beta cells, resulting in an absolute beta cell deficiency.
- Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), also known as non-insulin dependent diabetes, results from the body’s unproductive use of insulin caused by a relative beta cell deficiency resulting from peripheral insulin resistance.
- Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a condition in which women without previously diagnosed diabetes exhibit high blood glucose levels during pregnancy.
The importance of continuity process of assessment in diabetes care management has been well recognized because it has been shown to decrease the risk of long-term diabetes complications. The care management is assessed according to precise criteria for the measurement of outcomes and quality in diabetes care. The common data items (parameters) and indicators (target outcomes) were created to define consensus between healthcare stakeholders for assessment outcomes and quality in diabetes care. Diabetes care contribution to improving parameters like blood glucose control (as indicated by lowering of the HbA1c level), decreasing rates of chronic complications associated with diabetes, and health care intervention for decreasing the diabetes healthcare costs are main criteria for measurement of quality and effectiveness of diabetes care. An important factor also in the process of improving health, not only in diabetes, is by taking the advantages of changing daily lifestyle behavior such as smoking, alcohol, improper nutrition, lack of physical exercise.